The most pressing concerns of ordinary Europeans, such as their legal and personal security, immigration and the fight against fraud, have all been addressed in other chapters of the treaty. In particular, the EU has become responsible for immigration legislation, civil law or civil procedures, as it is necessary for the free movement of people within the EU. At the same time, intergovernmental cooperation in the field of police and criminal justice has intensified to enable Member States to better coordinate their activities. The Union aims to create an area of freedom, security and justice for its citizens. The Schengen agreements have been integrated into the EU legal system (Ireland and the UK have not remained below the Schengen Agreement, see the details of the common travel area). No progress has been made in closing the Union`s much-known democratic deficit. The negotiations that preceded the Treaty continued to be based on the fact that governments and states agreed, neither with public participation nor on transparent and sufficient information. The European Parliament, the only elected institution in the Community, has not been sufficiently strengthened. The text of the treaty was quite complex – it consists of three parts, an annex and thirteen protocols – and is not easily understandable either to the citizens, or even to the legal, economic and political actors who should act in accordance with its rules. The Treaty of Amsterdam, officially the Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty on the European Union, the treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, was signed on 2 October 1997 and came into force on 1 May 1999; [1] It made substantial changes to the Maastricht Treaty, which had been signed in 1992. all issues relating to free movement; external border controls; Asylum, immigration and the protection of the rights of third-country nationals; and judicial cooperation in civil matters has been “communitized” by the Treaty of Amsterdam, i.e. they have been placed under the legal framework of the first pillar.

To this end, the Schengen Agreements and the Convention have been incorporated into the Treaty. The United Kingdom, Ireland and Denmark were voluntarily left out and therefore retained the right to control people at their borders.