In the EEC, troubled companies often pay less than what is provided in the collective agreement and even below the prescribed minimum wage. To do this, they do not need opening clauses, other than the fact that most negotiations take place at the enterprise level. Some collective bargaining laws, for example in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.B exclude any derogation and prohibit the agreement of less favourable terms than those provided for by law or by higher-order agreements. The result is that in times of economic burden, fewer agreements are signed and fewer agreements include a guarantee of higher wages. In 24 states, workers working in a unionized company may be required to participate in representation fees (for example. B for disciplinary hearings) if their colleagues negotiated a union security clause in their contract with management. The fee is usually 1 to 2% of the salary. However, union members and other employees receive on average a wage increase of 5 to 10% compared to their non-unionized (or unsured) colleagues.  Some states, particularly in the southern parts of the central and southeastern United States, have banned union security clauses; This can be controversial because it allows some net beneficiaries of the union contract to avoid paying their share of the cost of contract negotiations. Regardless of the state, the Supreme Court ruled that the law prevented a person`s trade union rights from being used without consent to fund political concerns that might conflict with the individual`s personal policy. Instead, in states where union security clauses are permitted, these deviants can only pay the share of levies paid directly to the representation of workers.  In Greece, the 2012 reform replaced the possibility of indeterminate collective agreements with a minimum validity of one year and a maximum of three years (Dedoussopoulos et al. 2013).
The “counter-effect” of past agreements has been reduced from six to three months. If no new contracts can be concluded during this additional period, the expired contract will only apply to its basic salary, maternity, child, education and unsafe work allowances (ILO 2014). In Portugal, until 2003, a collective agreement could only be terminated if all the signatory parties agreed or had been replaced by an agreement between the same signatories.